In theory, a lightning protection system creates a "Faraday's cage" protecing the boat. Here's how it works.
This company makes lightning dissipaters for industry. Their site contains some good background information on what you are facing when you attempt to stop or re-route a lightning strike.
Masthead lightning rod continually leaks off the lightning-causing ground potential over a long period of time instead of the short duration, high amperage discharge occurring with a lightning strike.
Masthead air terminals, cables, and ground plates, with fasteners and related equipment for installing a lightning dissipation system.
Sacrificial wires installed between alternator's positive output and ground can limit the ability of stray voltage from lightning strikes or short circuits to damage diodes and other system components by sacrificing themselves before more expensive components are affected.